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5. ::n '"'" o' 0 0... , ..... e. programming) operation is always accompanied by a preceding erase operation. 6J. Once charges are injected by a write operation, they are held at the gate surrounded by insulator even if the power supply is turned off. In this cell, the erase and write operations are performed by ultraviolet exposure and avalanche injection, respectively. 18J has centered on the simplification of the memory cell and the reduction of the programming voltage (Vpp), which is the control-gate voltage for the write operation, as discussed later.

4. 4. 3-5 TFT load -On-chip voltage downconverter -Positive feedback sense -Synchronous/pipeline a E, enhancement; D, depletion. 30 1. An Introduction to Memory Chip Design circuit was first used, and then quickly followed by an NMOS circuit to improve the speed. After that, a CMOS peripheral circuit combined with a poly-silicon load NMOS memory cell was introduced in the 4 Kb generation, to reduce the power dissipation. A typical example is a CMOS differential amplifier with a PMOS current mirror.

1]. Note that for the enhancement MOSFET, the NMOSFET takes positive values for both VDS and VT , while the PMOSFET takes negative values for these voltages. 2 Devices 51 +IDS N-channel depletion P-channel enhancement P-channel depletion Fig. 2. 1) -IDS G l 0: non-conductive ~ Voo: conductive p-u D Vss (0) Voo (+5 V) (a) 0: conductive Voo: non-conductive s ~ (+5VooV) (0) Vss (b) Fig. 3. 1). VoS o Fig. 4. 1) are external supply voltages. 5J. 4 shows IDs versus VDS for different values of VGS at a given VBB.

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