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Extra info for Addison Wesley Inside The C Plus Plus Object Model
34 35 Member Class Object with Default Constructor If a class without any constructors contains a member object of a class with a default constructor, the implicit default constructor of the class is nontrivial and the compiler needs to synthesize a default constructor for the containing class. This synthesis, however, takes place only if the constructor actually needs to be invoked. C? In practice, this is solved by having the synthesized default constructor, copy constructor, destructor, and/or assignment copy operator defined as inline.
At least in the case of a synthesized copy constructor, the possibility of program side effects is nil and the optimization would seem to make good sense. What about in the case of a copy constructor explicitly provided by the class designer? (This is actually a rather contentious issue. ) To summarize: We have looked at the four conditions under which bitwise copy semantics do not hold for a class and the default copy constructor, if undeclared, is considered nontrivial. Under these conditions, the compiler, in the absence of a declared copy constructor, must synthesize a copy constructor in order to correctly implement the initialization of one class object with another.
For example, given Bear yogi; Bear winnie = yogi; yogi is initialized by the default Bear constructor. Within the constructor, yogi's vptr is initialized to address the Bear class virtual table with code inserted by the compiler. It is safe, therefore, to simply copy the value of yogi's vptr into winnie's. The copying of an object's vptr value, however, ceases to be safe when an object of a base class is initialized with an object of a class derived from it. For example, given ZooAnimal franny = yogi; the vptr associated with franny must not be initialized to address the Bear class virtual table (which would be the result if the value of yogi's vptr were used in a straightforward bitwise copy).