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By Theodore Von Kármán

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0 10v 1£± dx Fig. 7. Distribution of atoms and kinetic energy over forward velocity x and sideward velocity y. 4 g Ba, 93 g explosive. Efficiency η = 30%. Fluorescent ion jets for studying the ionosphere and magnetosphere 49 The vapor seems to carry about 17 kJ of energy, most of it being in the translational energy of the forward motion. In this case the degree of vaporization amounted to 12%, whence follows that particulate matter moving at about the same velocity must carry some 130 kJ in the form of translational energy.

MICHEL could be enhanced appreciably. The new type is evidently the one, where the collapse of the liner takes place at conditions that on the average are close to the critical angle ßc. The fast part of the jet is followed by a slow one, which corresponds to the slow plug, observed also in conventional shaped charges [8]. The irregularities are probably to be associated with instabilities in the expanding vaporizing two-phase flow. A certain optimum has been achieved with this type of charge. If one integrates over the velocity components, one obtains the energies indicated in Fig.

Acknowledgments—This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant NSFGA 37691 and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant NGR 05-020-330. The assistance of NASA Ames Research Center in preparation of the figures is gratefully recognized. References 1. Spreiter, J. , Shock waves in the solar system, Astronautica Ada 17, 321-338 (1972). 2. Spreiter, J. , Summers, A. L. and Alksne, A. , Hydromagnetic flow around the magnetosphere, Planet. Space Sei. 14, 223-253 (1966).

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