By Irwin E. Alber
Engineers have to collect “Back-of-the-Envelope” survival abilities to procure tough quantitative solutions to real-world difficulties, rather whilst engaged on tasks with huge, immense complexity and extremely constrained assets. within the case stories taken care of during this ebook, we exhibit step by step examples of the actual arguments and the ensuing calculations acquired utilizing the quick-fire approach. We additionally reveal the estimation advancements that may be bought by utilizing extra certain physics-based Back-of-the-Envelope engineering versions. those various tools are used to procure the strategies to a few layout and function estimation difficulties bobbing up from of the main complicated real-world engineering tasks: the distance travel and the Hubble area Telescope satellite tv for pc.
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For our BotE estimate, detailed below, we assume that the quantity of interest is ‘‘takeoﬀ thrust’’, which as propulsion engineers know is close to the maximum thrust that a jet engine generates. The objective of Linder’s thesis was a survey of MIT mechanical engineering Sec. 2 What is a Back-of-the-Envelope engineering estimate? 9 students (and of their counterparts at ﬁve other schools) to try to understand any diﬃculties that students might have in making simple estimates of engineering quantities such as force and energy.
Let’s speculate what that added information might be in order to improve our next BotE estimate for payload mass. 5 Level-3 estimate: cargo mass delivered by a two stage vehicle; based on a revised estimate for second stage structural mass fraction During the second stage of the ascent, the single biggest structural component is the external tank that supplies the propellants to the Orbiter’s engines. It can be thought of simply as a very large thin-walled pressurized vessel. 1 Questioning the magnitude of the Level-2 structural mass fraction Our model calculations indicate that once the ﬁrst stage solid propellants have been consumed in the ﬁrst two minutes of ﬂight, the initial mass for the second stage of ﬂight is about 700,000 kg.
Nevertheless, it can be done this way if we assume that the internal over-pressure is of order of one atmosphere. 4 Estimation by analogy Another approach is to estimate the wall thickness by considering some type of engineering analogy. In this case we choose (as shown in Chapter 3) to estimate ‘‘t ’’ by scaling-up the wall thickness of a similar pressurized vessel, namely an aluminum soda-pop can. 127 mm). 4 m or 8,400 mm) requires a diameter scale increase of 8,400/66 ¼ 127. 6 cm . It turns out that if we assume a wall thickness of order of 1 cm, the tank mass for an aluminum cylinder will be 30,000 kg; which is pretty close to the value for the external tank of the Shuttle published by NASA.